Tag Archives: Sense of Place

A memory walk through Cottesloe of the past

I never miss reading Robert Drewe’s column The Other Side in the Westweekend liftout of Saturday’s West Australian newspaper every week, because I have come to love the city that I grew up in and live in, and Drew’s pieces either provide a good laugh or an insight into the history of Perth, often both.

I couldn’t help noticing that in last week’s piece (June 13th 2015), Drewe describes some experiences that are a version of the method of loci memory technique. He writes of experiencing visual memories of past scenes of now-demolished Perth landmarks as he travels past the locations where they once served the people of Perth. Hamburger vendors on Mounts Bay Road and the Cottesloe foreshore are some examples given. I’m sure such experiences are common, and this is why anyone is able to exploit this type of memory experience using this ancient technique for memorizing a sequence of items encoded as visual memories. I have a special interest in the method of loci as I was I believe the first to describe, at this blog, a spontaneous experience experienced by myself and synaesthete kin in which we spontanously encode synaesthesia-like associations between concepts and visual memories of scenes, in a way that is similar to, but not the same as, the method of loci. My theory is that us synaesthetes have a greater tendency to memorize than most people, to the degree that we encode very robust long-term memories unintentionally and spontanously, just from being a passenger in a moving vehicle vacantly looking at passing scenery while listening to interesting news or stories on the car radio.

Drewe’s column unearths lost memories for readers week after week, which accounts for it’s appeal, so it is no surprise that his writing strikes a resonance with a piece that I wrote for this blog a while ago, detailing my inner visions of past year’s displays overlaying the current year’s display at specific well-used display sites at the annual Sculpture by the Sea exhibition at Cottesloe Beach. Like Drewe, I can’t be at that spot on the Cottesloe foreshore without “seeing” Van Eileen’s hamburger joint, with the semi-circular deeply sandy and untidy carpark area surrounding it. The odd thing is that my memory of how that spot is currently landscaped does not come to mind with any ease. Even if I was there, at that very spot, right now, I suspect that the green and well-tended vista would not seem quite as real as the memory, with associated sand in my shoes. It isn’t the real Cottesloe.

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New book looks very interesting

Making Space: How the Brain Knows Where Things Are by Jennifer M. Groh

http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674863217

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p028g3nb  (I got the pop-out player to work)

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22429970.700-where-am-i-in-the-world.html#.VH3qmjGUd8F

 

 

Too exciting! Nobel Prize awarded for research on stuff that I’ve been writing about here

Visual recognition of places or scenes, mental navigation, a sense of place and the normal mental memory function that is the basis for the “method of loci” memory technique are some of the interesting psychological subjects that I have written about here, and it appears that my interests very much overlap with the areas of research pioneered by John O’Keefe and May-Britt and Edvard Moser, all winners of the 2014 Nobel Prize for Medicine. This team spent a great part of their careers doing research on rats, and their discoveries include grid cells and “place cells” which are nerve cells in the hippocampus that only activate when the rat is in a specific physical location. I’m not clear whether the grid cells and the place cells are the same thing or not. Read about their fascinating and important research here.

I’m feeling very frustrated right now as I am sure that somewhere in this blog I’ve written a description of an experience that I occasionally have while travelling in a train in unfamiliar lines or at night, in which it appears that two different mental navigational systems in my brain go “out of sync” causing a temporary sense of confusion about where I am. One of these navigational systems is based on visual perception of scenes while the other is based on a body-centred, visceral, embodied, spatial, sense of direction, and the common language “spoken” between these two systems is the visual memory of scenes, (which is of interest in my case because this function is encoded in pretty-much the same part of the brain as face memory, and I’m a super-recognizer). Normally the visual perception of scenes system informs and regularly updates the directional sense system, and the directional system accesses a sequentially-encoded system of visual memories of places and then sends predictions about expected scenery back to the visual system. Sometimes when visual scene recognition operates at the edges of ability and fails to provide input to or misinforms the directional system, the directional system works in an uncertain and speculative way, and at times is confronted with input of visual scenes that do not fit the predictions of expected scenery sent from the scene memory bank. This is the “spin-out” moment. Following this head-spinning moment of confusion is a sense of “Where the f*** are we?”, and my sense of navigation will either be reset from a combination of conscious knowledge of direction combined with visual memories of scenes or fresh comprehensible visual input. This is my interpretation of these types of experiences, which I believe are interesting and can inform us about normal mental navigation. I am very conscious of visual memories of scenes because I experience a number of types of synaesthesia in which these memories are either inducers or concurrents. I believe I am the first person in the world who has taken the time to write and publish full descriptions of these experiences, here at this blog. I have asserted that one of these types of synaesthesia is the same or very similar to the very powerful and ancient method of loci memory technique, which involves activation of a number of parts of the human brain, including the hippocampus.

Another kind of super-recognizer moment?

Heaven knows why, but today the TV tuner was tuned to ABC3 and the TV show Life With Boys was on, a show for teens produced in Canada since 2011, and as I glanced at a few moments of the show I felt a sense of familiarity about the set which was used for that episode, and realized that it was quite similar to the set used for the American 1960s sitcom Bewitched. The sets for both shows are not identical, but have a similar feel and similar features. Both sets depicted cute wooden family homes both with stonework fireplaces filmed from an angle front-on and both sets have wood and glass front doors set into window-pane style frames, and to the right of the front doors both sets have a wooden staircase going up in a style that turns at right angles.

Knowing that face recognition and scene recognition are both done in the same or very close-by parts of the brain and both types of visual recognition appear to operate in very similar ways in my brain, I suspect that the many times that I’ve recognized complex visual similarities between real homes and between sets used for screen dramas might also count as “super-recognizer moments”.

Some ideas that I’d like to (explicitly) lay claim to (right now) in 2014

A note of warning – If you are thinking about copying or plagiarizing any of the text, ideas or descriptions in this post or using it in your own work without giving me (C. Wright, author of the blog “Am I a Super-recognizer?”) the proper acknowledgement and citations, then think again. If you do that you will be found out and my objection will be well publicized. If you believe that you published any of these ideas before I did, please let me know the details in a comment on this article. If you want to make reference to this blog post or any of the ideas in it make sure that you state in your work exactly where you first read about these ideas. If you wish to quote any text from this post be sure to cite this post at this blog properly. There are many established citation methods. If you quote or make reference to material in this blog in your work, it would be a common courtesy to let me know about your work (I’m interested!) in a comment on any of the posts in this blog. Thank you.

The idea that Benson’s syndrome or posterior cortical atrophy or PCA, a variety of dementia, is caused or develops in a way that can be seen as the opposite of the synaesthesia linked with exceptional visual memory and literacy skills that runs in my family (this idea has been explored previously in this blog).

The idea that the above cited states develop or are caused in a way that makes them seem like opposites because they both affect the same or similar areas of the brain, but in opposite ways.

The idea that the above described process happens because Benson’s syndrome and our variety of synaesthesia are both mediated by the same or similar natural chemical or cells or biological agent in the brain, one caused by high levels of the mystery substance and the other caused by low levels (a hypothesis that I briefly suggested in January 2011).

The idea that one of the many known or unknown elements of the immune system that impact brain development is the mystery substance referred to above (a hypothesis that I briefly outlined in 2012).

The (implied in above ideas) idea of the immune hypothesis of synaesthesia. (This idea was first published by me in 2012 in a blog post archived here, was I believe plagiarized in 2013 here, and was the subject of my plagiarism claim here.)

The idea that one or more of the complement immune chemicals is the  mystery substance referred to above.

The idea that the C3 complement immune chemical  is the  mystery substance referred to above.

The idea that synaesthesia is linked with one or maybe more immune diseases or conditions caused by low levels of complement.

The idea that genes for synaesthesia stay quite common in the gene pool because of some associated cognitive advantage (probably superior memory) that balances out any disadvantages caused by deficiencies in the immune system.

The idea that some or many people unintentionally experience a memory process that operates in a similar way to the method of loci memory technique in their everyday lives, unintentionally forming long-term associations between individual learned concepts and individual visual memories of scenes (I have named this phenomenon Involuntary Method of Loci Memorization or IMLM).

The idea that IMLM operates in such a similar way to synaesthesia that one could argue that it is a type of synaesthesia.

The idea that synaesthetes are more likely to experience IMLM than non-synaesthetes.

The (implied) idea that the method of loci memory technique is similar to or a type of synaesthesia.

The idea that synaesthetes might have a natural advantage in using the method of loci because the method of loci is similar to or is a type of  synaesthesia. This idea that seems likely in light of the case of “S” the Russian memory performer with many types of synaesthesia described by Luria. 

The idea that IMLM is a phenomenon that is caused by enhanced synaptic plasticity throughout the life span.

The idea that IMLM is a phenomenon that is caused by enhanced synaptic plasticity throughout the life span and can thus be used as an indicator of which synaesthetes are synaesthetes due to enhanced synaptic plasticity throughout the life span rather than other possible causes of synaesthesia. Support for this idea comes from the fact that IMLM appears to be a non-developmental variety of synaesthesia that can form new long-term associations in adolescence and adulthood.

The idea that IMLM is a phenomenon that is caused by the unusual possession of levels of synaptic plasticity typical of a young child, during adolescence or adulthood.

The idea that IMLM is caused or enhanced by some characteristic of the immune system that affects the functioning of the brain. Many different elements of the incredibly complex immune system are thought to affect the functioning or development of the brain, and could thus be involved in IMLM, including the complement system, microglia and the MHC class I molecules. Researchers such as Beth Stevens and Carla Shatz have investigated this exciting area of neuroscience. In 2012 I hypothesized at this blog that synaesthesia could be caused by low levels of complement, this idea implying that the immune system is directly involved in synaesthesia (or at least some cases of synaesthesia). I believe these ideas were plagiarized in a paper published in 2013.

The idea that IMLM is similar to the “Proust phenomenon” in that it is very similar to synaesthesia or is a type of synaesthesia and involves episodic or autobiographical memory as a concurrent.

The idea that phonics as a foundational reading skill is similar to or is arguably a type of synaesthesia in that it involves the involuntary association of individual speech sounds with individual printed letters or combinations of letters, as the result of learning in early to mid childhood.

The idea that at least one type of dyslexia is like a deficiency of synaesthesia.

The implied idea that if synaesthesia has as it’s basis hyperconnectivity in the white matter of the brain, dyslexia as an opposite of synaesthesia or a deficiency of synaesthesia is or could be caused by hypoconnectivity in the white matter of the brain (I suspect there might be existing research evidence that supports this idea).

The implied idea that in at least one cluster or grouping of cases synaesthesia is associated with superiority in literacy or reading skill.

The idea that synaesthesia can happen in different regions of the brain, and because of this the experience of various types of synaesthesia can vary in detectable ways because of the influence on the synaesthesia of the varied ways that different areas of the brain operate. This can mean that one synaesthete can experience different types of synaesthesia that operate in very different ways, for example, some types of synaesthesia more rare or spontaneous or intrusive than other types. (I am not completely sure of the originality or the novelty of all of this idea.)

The idea that there is an association between synaesthesia and super-recognition that is not merely coincidental.

The idea that synaesthesia is a type of memory or learning. (Not sure if I’m the first to note this obvious fact).

The idea that synaesthesia concurrents are re-experienced memories, or re-activated “learnings” of concepts, not perceptions. (Not sure if I’m the first to note this obvious fact). In support of this idea I can assert that synaesthesia is like face recognition in that both are visual memory-based phenomena which are subject to the Verbal Overshadowing Effect or something very similar. My assertion that synaesthesia is subject to the verbal overshadowing effect is based on my own observations (outlined elsewhere in this post).

The idea that super-recognizers should or could be trained and employed as expert consultants in the practice of medical genetics.

The idea that medical geneticists and all types of medical specialists need to have a super-recognizer level of face memory or face recognition ability, so that they can intuitively and quickly recognize medical facies.

The idea that there is no clear point of distinction between medical facies or faces associated with genetic syndromes and normal faces.

The idea that super-recognizers could be used to facially identify blood relatives of a person or persons.

The idea that super-recognizers could be used to facially identify the specific ethnicity of a person.

(below ideas added January 28th 2014)

The idea that super-recognition or being a super-recognizer could develop as the result of an unusual level of fascination with the visual appearance of landscapes or scenes, rather than from a fascination with faces, and thus be a side-effect hyper-development of a part of the brain that serves two similar functions.

The idea that super-recognition or being a super-recognizer could, at least  in some cases, develop as the result of a general hyper-development of the visual sense to compensate for problems in the auditory sense during childhood such as temporary deafness, recurrent ear infections, glue ear or poor auditory processing.

(below idea added February 1st 2014)

The idea that lexical-gustatory synaesthesia is an exaggerated form of some kind of evolutionary adaptation in the brain that biologically primes the mind to attend to or react to speech on the subject of food (this idea was discussed at this blog in a post dated January 27th 2011, with more consideration in a later post).

(below ideas added February 6th 2014)

The idea that creativity might be immediately enhanced during and only during the duration of physical or visual-spatial activity because the activity activates areas of the brain associated with movement and in turn these areas activate other areas of the brain including those that give rise to conceptual thinking, and the increased activation makes novel associations between diverse thoughts and concepts more likely, and that this process is like synaesthesia or is a type of synaesthesia, and the types of physical activity that are the most effective inducers of this effect might be highly specific, highly specific in effects, highly varied between individuals and highly idiosyncratic, as is typical of synaesthesia inducers and concurrents. Driving a car can act as an inducer of this effect. (I have gone some way to exploring this idea in past posts.)

The idea that mental flexibility might be immediately enhanced by the above effect, which I will name “movement – thought-flexibility synaesthesia”.

The idea that thinking might be immediately enhanced by the above effect.

The idea that memory might be immediately enhanced by the above effect.

The idea that the above effect is similar to embodied cognition or is a type of embodied cognition.

(below ideas added February 14th  and  February 20th 2014)

The idea that synaesthesia is like the process of face recognition (and vice versa), because they both

– are subject to the verbal overshadowing effect or something similar

– are automatic

– are involuntary

– have a sensory inducer, in face recognition always visual, in synaesthesia I think most frequently visual

– have or can have a concurrent that could be described as a memory, a concept or a personality (I’m comparing face recognition with personification synaesthesias and the synaesthesias that I have described at this blog which have visual memories of scenes as concurrents)

– are or can be visual in both the inducer and concurrent

– typically involve the fusiform gyrus

– involve set pairings of inducers and concurrents (same person’s face seen before then recognized later)

– involve set parings of highly specific inducers and concurrents (I recognize that an employee at my local supermarket has a sister who has just started working there too, as their faces and bodies and hair are near-identical, but for the extra acne and the more receding chin of the new employee. They are very similar in appearance but my discrimination is highly specific, just as I can recognize that the green wall on the lower floor of a public library is close to but not quite the same colour as Tuesday.)

– both can have, but do not always have an actual face as an inducer (we can recognize the faces of celebrities in photos, caricatures and art, even seeing Marilyn Monroe’s face in a pattern of brown coffee cups stuck to the wall at the coffee shop at the art gallery.)

(below idea added February 17th 2014)

“My particular interest in personification is my own theory that personification synaesthesia (as experienced by myself) or something like it gives rise to superiority in face memory (or being a super-recognizer) by naturally making the faces of unknown people more memorable and interesting”

The above is a quote from an article that was published at the blog in October 2013.

(below ideas added February 19th 2014)

The idea that the synaesthesia brain is the result of the developmental influence or shaping from, or the adaptation to, the behavioural phenomenon of “flow” as described by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi.

The idea that synaesthesia, intellectual giftedness or high IQ and autism or Asperger syndrome seem to coincide more often than chance because gifted and autistic kids are more likely to experience “flow” and this in turn can influence the developing brain in a way that gives rise to synaesthesia.

(below ideas added February 20th 2014)

The idea that the genuine conscious awareness of synaesthesia is a threshold phenomenon that operates in conflict or competition with conscious thinking, meaning that consciously thinking about synaesthesia can inferfere with the perception of concurrents, and synaesthesia must reach a particular level of intensity before it interrupts the experience of consciousness and becomes itself the subject of conscious awareness. I think that the idea that thinking about synaesthesia can interfere with the perception of synaesthesia might be related to the “verbal overshadowing” effect which has been described and debated about by researchers. In fairness I should point out that Mark C. Price speculated in the recently published (2013) Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia that synaesthesia could be subject to the verbal overshadowing effect. My own ideas were arrived upon independently from Price’s writing or work.  I base the ideas of synaesthesia being a threshold phenomenon which can also be interfered with by conscious thinking on a number of my own observations. In direct contradiction to what I had expected to find, my scores for accuracy for individual letters and numbers in The Synesthesia Battery (a scientifically-validated online test of synaesthesia) were lower for the numbers and letters that have colours that I find beautiful and which I have thought about to some degree, while my best accuracy was for the numbers and letters that have the dull and ugly colours. It seems the less I think about the concurrents the more accurately I can percieve them when they are evoked. I have also noticed that most of the types of synaesthesia that I experience I was not consciously aware of before I started to think about and examine the idea of synaesthesia. I never realised that I had complete stability in the colours I associate with months and days of the week till I tested myself. While I had a dim awareness of colour colouring my thoughts, I’d not realised that this worked like synaesthesia till I went looking for a pattern using simple testing. My fine motor movement-visual memories of scenes synaesthesia evokes concurrents that are so fleetingly and subtly experienced that they just feel like random thoughts, and indeed I now believe it is possible that the random thoughts of many or even all people are in fact synaesthesia of various types. I have also observed that there are some very unsubtle and intrusive types of syn that I experience, and they are typically rarely experienced and are associated with people, emotions, faces, singing voices or music that I find striking or novel as inducers. Because of the circumstances of these examples of synaesthesia, I think some kind of threshold is being breached when these types of synaesthesia are experienced by me.

The idea that one of the established defining criteria for synaesthesia, that it gives rise to perceptions or concurrents which are “consistent and generic (i.e., simple rather than pictorial)”, is wrong, and specific categories of memories of complex visual images such as faces and scenes, which are processed in the fusiform gyrus, can also be experienced as genuine synaesthesia concurrents. I base this assertion on the fact that I often involuntarily experience synesthesia concurrents of this type, and I have written about such experiences right from the first post in this blog which was published in 2010. I have also named types of synesthesia that have complex visual memories as concurrents: the strange phenomenon, fine motor task – visual place memory synaesthesia, involuntary method of loci memorization, etc. There are also many accounts or scientific observations of synaesthesia with complex visual concurrents in the scientific literature on synaesthesia.

Listening to Heather Sellers’ autobiography

I’ve been listening to the interesting autobiography by prosopagnosic Heather Sellers, titled You Don’t Look Like Anyone I Know, in a compact disc format. I had wanted to borrow the book from the public library, but for some reason or another they decided to order it in a spoken word form. Perhaps they thought that face-blindness is a sub-set of ordinary blindness, and the readers who would be interested in the autobiography would have visual impairments or dyslexia. Actually, I’d like to know if there is any link between dyslexia and prosopagnosia, but I know for sure that there are plenty of prosopagnosics who do not report any issues with vision or reading at all.

I’ll admit that I haven’t found the time to listen to all nine discs. The content of disc number seven was particularly of interest to me, covering Ms Sellers’ discovery of her own prosopagnosia, the dreadful way that she was treated during the process of getting professionally diagnosed, in the time when prosopagnosia was thought of as a rare effect of stroke affecting mostly middle-aged men, and speculation about any possible link between her prosopagnosia and her mother’s mental illness. Some useful resources that Ms Sellers wrote about discovering were an academic reserch book by Andrew W. Young and the website Faceblind.org, which is still a very important resource about prosopagnosia. Ms Sellers contacted the face recognition researcher Brad Duchaine and also discovered an online community of prosopagnosics, mostly developmental cases who often saw prosopagnosia in family members, and some acting in the role of disability activist. Different approaches to disclosing prosopagnosia as a disability are touched upon. It’s interesting stuff for sure, and I thank Ms Sellers for sharing her story.

It is perhaps worth mentioning that as I listened to the CDs of Ms Sellers’ autobiography, as visual illustration of the story in my mind’s eye, my mind automatically retrieved some old visual memories from my past in Perth, Western Australia as settings for the story, even though they were probably not a close fit to the real settings of the real events described by the author Sellers from the US. For scenes set in the university in which Sellers was a student, my mind used my visual memories of the Joondalup Campus of the Edith Curtin University, specifically the lunch bar area next to a stairway. For scenes of the story that were set in residential areas my mind used old memories of old and run-down unrenovated two-story blocks of flats in Subiaco (which have probably been fixed up or demolished by now), and for interior shots of the author’s university residence my mind came up with some imagined spaces. Perhaps this effortless, involuntary and unconscious visualization while listening to a story is completely typical of the way all people listen to stories. Whether it is or not, it shows how visual memories are involuntarily and centrally involved with thinking processes that aren’t explicitly remembering or memory-related. Visual memory is not just a isolated function summoned up when we want to remember what something looked like. Visual memory is in the guts of cognition, it is more than a record of past sensory experiences, and this is why I am not surprised that visual memories come up so often (in my own experience) as synaesthesia inducers and concurrents associated with other cognitive functions that appear to have little relation with visual memory, such as fine-motor learned skills and thinking about very abstract concepts. The automatic use of visual memories when I am thinking about a story that I’m listening to shows that visual memory is not just a narrow function of the mind, and I think it also shows that there is little point in trying to make a distinction between memory and imagination, as both appear to be functions that are beyond conscious control, at least in some situations.

Moving backward to re-read a science magazine article

I remembered that quite a while ago I read an article in New Scientist magazine which I thought at the time seemed to be describing stuff that could possibly be related to my synaesthesia-related experiences that involve a sense of place or a sense of space. I was also particularly impressed by that article because it was well written and the subject matter, embodied cognition, is simply fascinating regardless of any personal relevance. I’ve once again located a copy of that article, and when I find a spare moment I plan to check if it relates to the journal paper that I mentioned in my last post, and I will also check if it relates to any of the types of synaesthesia that I’ve documented in this blog.

Ananthaswamy, Anil Let your body do the thinking. New Scientist. Number 2753 March 27th 2010 p.8-9.
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527535.100-mind-over-matter-how-your-body-does-your-thinking.html

The Pushbike Song – unforgettable and unfortunately also quite unbearable

I have that many different types of synaesthesia that I’m not sure if I could give a definite count of all the types. I “see” colours and personalities in the letters of the alphabet. Some words never fail to make me think of a food, even though they aren’t words for foods. I sometimes “hear” sounds in response to watching motion and I’ve “seen” a coloured taste. All really good music has a colourful accompaniment, and a sense of direction and motion is an integral part of any worthwhile musical work. None of these experiences feel out of the ordinary for me, but I’ve got to admit that plain silly situations are a part of being a synaesthete, no more silly situation than involuntarily thinking about the concept of “The Pushbike Song” as sung in the 1970s by The Mixtures when I scrape out the last bits of peanut paste from the jar with a butter knife. Like many of the incongruous experiences triggered by synaesthesia, this is like something that has been recovered from a time-capsule. Shouldn’t such a cheesy tune be neurologically linked with a cheese-related activity?

The Pushbike Song by The Mixtures, a YouTube video clip featuring scenes from around Melbourne in the 1970s http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/v/XOMIJUwbGb8?fs=1&hl=en_US

Report on my fine motor task -> visual place memory synaesthesia https://superrecognizer.wordpress.com/2011/02/20/report-on-my-fine-motor-task-visual-place-memory-synaesthesia/

Wide Open Road by The Triffids

I’ve found another great Perth band that was popular in the 1980s that had a video clip with scenes from around Perth from years ago. I’ve always thought the mood of this song subverts the impression that one gets from the song’s title. One can get so lost among the possibilities offered by a wide open road.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSMF3h7LE2Q

Report on my fine motor task -> visual place memory synaesthesia

This report should also be read along with my earlier posting titled I’ve got my chits together published at https://superrecognizer.wordpress.com/2011/01/30/252/

This report revised on 23rd Feb 2011 to add another observation, with more comments added February 26th 2011

Total number of observations of experiences of automatically experienced visual memories (seen in my mind’s eye) of place scenes from my past evoked by doing learned fine-motor household and everyday chores with my hands70

Records of triggers only3

Records of place visual memories evoked only 2

Period of time in which I have been recording these experiencesyears, how many unknown. (I regret that I did not think to add dates of observations to my written records on chits of paper).

Number of sets of the same triggers and experiences that have been recorded more than once only 4 (these sets have only been recorded twice, none any more than twice)

Descriptions of these four confirmed sets

  1. Carefully patting the ends of softening uncooked spaghetti into a saucepan of boiling water to make sure it goes into the water and cooks evenly and separately –> a scene of a streetscape with specific buildings in a back-street part of Fremantle, visited once with a friend years ago (friend worked there once).
  2. Browning cubes of meat in hot oil in a saucepan using a wooden spoon to turn and brown the meat while making curry or stew –> the Ogden’s restaurant on Stirling Highway in Cottesloe that I visited with family many years ago, in which customers could cook their own thick steaks and meats and seafood on a hot grill. Interestingly, I also have records of this same cooking chore evoking visual memories of two other places – some back streets of Joondanna and a part of Stock Road near where the Stock Road markets used to be. These places have no obvious connection with cooking or beef.
  3. Turning bacon over in frypan which is sticking, using an egg flipper -> semi-rural residential street that led to some popular waterfall in the hills.
  4. Trimming nails with nail scissors -> the street where I lived in my childhood/the other end of the street where I lived as a child (not the end where we lived). This is another trigger that has evoked four different scenes, the other scenes being a bush scene of a scenic but isolated road route from Perth to the Wheatbelt, and a humped narrow wooden traffic bridge at the end of the main CBD of Mandurah as it was in the 1970s or maybe the 1980s. There is no apparent thematic connection between any of these places and the chore.

Number of close but inexact matches between sets of triggers and scenes3

Descriptions of inexact matches

  1. Scraping the very last bits of peanut paste from the side of a plastic jar with a knife -> an image of Leighton Beach and this chore also evoked thinking about the concept of “The Pushbike Song” which was an Australian hit in the 1970s when I was a young child. Leighton Beach is a place that I’ve rarely swum at, but have ridden past on a bicycle a few times, in North Fremantle. The exact same chore trigger has also evoked a scene of an area of North Fremantle between Stirling Hwy and the limestone cliffs along the Swan River, an area which I once explored at least 20 years ago on a bicycle. There are obvious connections between the places evoked (both in North Freo) and the memory and the concept of riding a bicycle. This is one of many observations that demonstrate that thinking about concepts and places are very much inter-connected in my brain.
  2. Picking out the darkest, crunchiest French fry from a pack from McDonalds -> the staircase in the home of our next-door neighbours from when I was a child. Plucking carefully selected chips from a packet of potato crisps -> scene of that same staircase, as it looked back in the 1970s. The fastidious chip selection also evokes thoughts of the concept of deliberately offensive and confronting performance and conceptual art. Obviously these two triggers are very similar, and the scenes evoked are the same, but there is no apparent link between the triggers and the scenes. It is also far from obvious how the offensive art might be connected with these other things. Maybe I have always thought of our past next-door neighbours as the archetypal nice, respectable, middle-class, religious people who would be deeply offended by such art. My family didn’t deserve to have such nice neighbours, and they certainly didn’t deserve to have us living next door.
  3. Peeling paper off of a 250g butter pat, as used in baking, and cutting up chunks of butter with a butter knife while weighing it for baking are two chores that both evoke a scene of the exact same area on the top floor of a shopping centre that I visited 30 or so years ago, at the top of the escalator near a Jeans West shop.

Many of these observed sets of triggers and scenes appear to be related within categories:

Buttering crumbly scones -> an ugly back street of Wanneroo near the Wanneroo Showgrounds

Buttering toast -> an old fuel station on Wanneroo Road, not far from above location

The wiping of a little baby’s bottom and the wiping of a toddler’s bigger bottom during nappy changing trigger scenes of two WA regional locations, at Geraldton and a camping spot between Lancelin and Jurien.

Hand-washing laundry chore movements such as scrubbing, swooshing water down the sink and turning on taps evoke a number of scenes around Fremantle and also two dreary regional cities (Bunbury WA and Mackay QLD).

Stirring saucepan chores evoke scenes of Armadale and Kelmscott, adjacent SE Perth suburbs that I’m not that keen on.

Number of identical chores evoking completely different scenes 1 (beating in sugar gradually while making a pavlova with a power mixer –> scene of the front of the kindergarten that I attended (but did not enjoy) and a scene of an area near a maternity hospital, these scenes are in two different suburbs.

Number of identical scenes evoked by different chores 1 (this scene also automatically triggered thinking about an outdated concept that is logically related to the scene of a now-derelict place as it looked when it operated in the 1970s)

Number of triggers that have evoked scenes and also thinking about specific concepts (Domino Effect Synaesthesia) – 4

Number of scenes evoked by chores that are also evoked by thinking about a specific concept 2 (I have a collection of observations of memories of scenes being triggered by thinking about specific concepts.)

Types of triggers include food preparation chores, laundry hand-washing, grooming, nappy change, hair, makeup. Only 1 trigger from a task performed outside the home – swiping a bank card through an EFTPOS machine.

Types of scenes evoked include many places from early childhood, but not all of the places from my childhood. A scene from our neighbours’ home is evoked, but no scenes of my own childhood home. The church attended sporadically during boring primary school religion classes (“scripture”) is “seen”, but there are no scenes of the church that I attended with my family regularly on Sundays. Areas in the vicinity of homes that I used to live in years ago are well represented, as are homes of friends and family visited now and then many years ago (people and places that in some cases no longer exist). Also places visited for fun long ago but not recently are well represented, such as Fremantle. Interstate and WA regional places that I have visited alone as an adult or with family as a child or teen are well represented, but places interstate that I visited with a boyfriend many years ago are noticeably not evoked by this synaesthesia.

Memories in the vicinity of both of the Perth area showgrounds that I have ever visited are evoked – the Claremont and the Wanneroo Showgrounds. Showgrounds are a peculiar type of place, I visit them occasionally and unpredictably but not regularly, and they don’t change much (the neglect of these places is obvious), so memorizing them well at each visit is useful. When I last visited the Claremont Showgrounds during a music festival I could not resist the urge to walk about in the summer heat and crowds, looking at all of the areas that were open to the public.

Three dull regional WA locations are among scenes evoked by this synaesthesia , as are two interstate dull regional places (Bowen and Mackay). A good proportion of the places evoked are places that I have visited only once. All of the scenes evoked are very specific, scenes that one could see by looking in one direction while standing in one place. These are not the concepts of places or street names, they are actual visual scenes. The places evoked are not as uniformly dull or depressing as I had expected them to be. Some quite pleasant locations in Fremantle are evoked.

Scenes that are NOT evoked include my own past or present homes, shopping centres that I currently shop at, homes of close family members that I have visited regularly, the high schools that I attended (my high school years were a stressful time in my life), any of the past or present homes of my best friend (who I have been in contact with since early childhood), or the best places in WA, Perth or interstate that I have visited. Clearly there is a pattern in the type of places that are and are not evoked by this phenomenon. This phenomenon does not evoke visual memories of places that I am or have been keen to revisit, or places that I have revisited frequently, or places that I presently anticipate revisiting often. Clearly there is an important area of the brain that encodes these place memories that is not connected at all with this phenomenon. Clearly I have place memories stored in two different and separate parts of the brain, one operating like the stack of a library, the other operating like the main lending shelves of a library. Clearly there is some process by which my visual memories of places are sorted into two different categories. A recently published journal paper titled Sleep selectively enhances memory expected to be of future relevance indicates that a person’s expectations about memories can affect the way those memories are stored in the brain (Wilhelm et al 2011). It appears that sleep selectively enhances some other specific types of memories, so clearly “memories aint memories”.

Interstate places that I visited when I was touring with a boyfriend many years ago are not evoked by this synaesthesia, while some interstate places that I visited alone during that same period are evoked. Why the difference? Perhaps my BF at the time was a distraction from properly looking at and encoding visual memories of these places in the Eastern States. I tend to think the reason why these memories are absent is the same reason why my memories of high school are not evoked by this synaesthesia.

Discussion

I believe that the total number of observed pairings (sixty-nine) shows that this is a real phenomenon. I know that I am not intentionally thinking of places while I do household chores, and this automatic visualizing of scenes appears to be not driven by any logical train of thought, because for most pairings there is no logical link. For a couple of pairs of chores and scenes there are apparent conceptual links, but for most there is no apparent logical or temporal link between the chore trigger and the visual scene.

I have not observed any habit of thinking about things that are not scenes of places while I do household chores. I don’t recall seeing involuntarily in my mind’s eye to any unusual degree faces or colours or scenes of people or abstract images, but I do recall seeing many scenes of many places. This thing with seeing scenes is not just random thoughts. Visual memories of faces are not mixed up with this phenomenon, a fact which supports the idea that the processing of faces and scenes do not take place in exactly the same part of the brain (as some scientists have suggested), but the fact that the strange phenomenon, in which I involuntarily “saw” in my mind’s eye a memory of a face, is the only other type of phenomenon besides this one that I have ever experienced in which I have received an involuntary visual memory, in an experience that has characteristics of synaesthesia, suggests that the processing of faces and scenes are linked, similar and special in the way they operate in my brain.

It is clear that thinking about concepts is to a degree mixed up with this type of synaesthesia. I am not aware of any published account of any other type of synaesthesia in which three (rather than two) different types of thinking are atypically interconnected. It is important to bear in mind that I experience another type of synaesthesia or synaesthesia-like phenomenon in which concepts are reliably associated with specific places. In some examples, being at the place triggers thinking about the concept associated with it, and in some examples thinking about the concept triggers a visual memory of the place, and in some examples it goes both ways.  I have recorded over twenty examples of this synaesthesia over the years. This type of synaesthesia appears to be the result of the involuntary “method of loci” memorization that I and two first-degree synaesthete relatives experience. I hope to sometime find the time to type up a report about this. All of this inter-connection of different types of cognition, including thinking about concepts, indicates that it is impossible to identify a point of demarcation between synaesthesia and normal, functional thinking. Synesthesia gives rise to examples of cognition that seem senseless and random, but it also most likely helps to form and enhance brain structures that give rise to useful, sensible and accurate thinking. One should not automatically dismiss any synaesthesia association as random nonsense.

The fact that the scenes “seen” in my fine motor task -> visual place memory synaesthesia are exclusively obsolete, ugly or dreary suggests that this is a real phenomenon – why would I intentionally create such an unappealing experience? The patterns observed also suggest that this experience is based on real connections within my brain. Many patterns and some confirmed identical matches (four) between separately observed sets of synaesthesia experiences have been found, indicating that this is based on neural structures that have some stability, but I do not believe that the pairings between chores and scenes are permanent. I believe they fade and possibly change and are created in time. I believe this is the best explanation for the small number of repeated observations of identical pairings.

This is a phenomenon in which a large set of examples of one type of neurological event (learned tasks done by the hand) have triggered individually a large set of examples of another type of neurological event (visualizing memories of scenes of places). This is a pattern that is typical of synaesthesia. In this respect, this phenomenon very much resembles synaesthesia, but this phenomenon does not very adequately match some other characteristics of synaesthesia that have been cited by researchers. This seems to be a changeable and not reliable phenomenon, and it often appears to lack a rigid relationship between one specific trigger and one specific experience. This phenomenon appears to be more branched, more changeable and more inter-connected than synaesthesia as it is typically described, with some apparent connections to neural structures that are involved with conceptual thinking. I guess neural plasticity could be an explanation for why this type of synaesthesia seems to be more chaotic and changeable than other well-known types of synaesthesia. Perhaps this is a type of synaesthesia that involves more changeable parts of the brain than do other types of synaesthesia. I guess one would expect to find neural plasticity in parts of the brain that are responsible for learning about new concepts and learned motor skills, as humans are capable of learning new tricks and new ideas at any stage of the lifespan. In general, the picure that seems to have emerged from the data that I have collected is of a number of multi-branched hubs connecting chores, scenes and sometimes concepts in a way that is not very predictable. This is quite different from the conventional idea of synaesthesia as orderly groups of individual, one-way and reliable connections between two and only two things that are not usually connected.

In my opinion, synaesthesia researchers should consider whether some of the characteristics that have been accepted as defining features of synaesthesia are only a reflection of characteristics of the specific parts of the brain in which the well-recognized forms of synaesthesia take place. Synaesthesia will be a purely sensory experience when it happens between two parts of the brain that process sensory functions. Synaesthesia will be obvious, easy to describe, easy to verify and easy to study when it reliably and discretely triggers very specific colours in situations in which experiences of colours are not normally evoked. What could be more clear and obvious than atypical experiences that are helpfully colour-coded? One wouldn’t need to be Einstein to identify such a phenomenon. Synaesthesia will be a spatial experience when it involves a part of the brain that processes spatial thinking. Synaesthesia will be an emotional experience when it involves the temporal lobe(s). Synaesthesia will be a rigid, discrete and fixed phenomenon when it involves a part of the brain that processes thinking about learning about things that are discrete and do not change over time, things such as alphabets, numbers, days of the week and any of the many other learned sequences of stable knowledge that are typically learned very early in one’s education and early in one’s life. Synaesthesia might involve personal and social considerations when it involves a part of the brain that processes faces, considering the wealth of highly personal information that can be read in a face. Synaesthesia might superficially resemble the symptoms of visual disorders or psychosis when it involves parts of the brain that process vision or hearing or conceptual thinking or socially important cognitive functions such as processing faces or voices. Such forms of synaesthesia might routinely be kept secret by those who experience them (for obvious reasons), or could conceivably be misdiagnosed, and might thus remain unknown to synaesthesia researchers. Synaesthesia might resemble nostalgia, normal remembering or daydreaming when it involves parts of the brain that process memories, and thus might not be identified as synaesthesia by the person experiencing it. Synaesthesia might be highly changeable and fluid when it involves a part or parts of the brain that are used for learning new skills and learning skills that can fall into disuse, or parts of the brain that are used for the highly unstable experience of performing. Synaesthesia researchers need to consider whether they have been studying only the lowest-hanging fruit during the very long period of time that synaesthesia has been studied.

I believe the biggest barrier to having my hand chore-visual scene memory experience recognized as a type of synaesthesia might be demonstrating that it is atypical, because I believe it is an experience so subtle and hard to distinguish from apparently random “wandering” of the mind that it could be tricky to demonstrate its presence or absence in most people.

References

Ines Wilhelm, Susanne Diekelmann, Ina Molzow, Amr Ayoub, Matthias Mölle, and Jan Born Sleep Selectively Enhances Memory Expected to Be of Future Relevance. Journal of Neuroscience. February 2, 2011, 31(5):1563-1569; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3575-10.2011. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/short/31/5/1563